Note 1: It is important to distinguish between Chinookan languages and “Chinook jargon”. The Natítanui language, as spoken by Q’lti, and preserved in the 1894 “Chinook Texts”, gives us clues about Chinuk Wawa’s history. All Free. Masculine prefixes appear with the large animals; feminine for small ones. Take note, please, that this Salish word involves the “back X” sound xÌ£; I’ll return to this detail.Â. Coastal Chinook) Clatsop Shoalwater (a.k.a. Upper Chinook was originally a set of half a dozen dialects, spoken in the upper Columbia River of which only the Wasco-Wishram dialect is still active. Shoalwater-Clatsop Lower Chinookans. Chinook Pidgin (Chinook Jargon) Chinook Wawa (Chinook Jargon) Chipewyan. Shoalwater-Clatsop … Mathias D. Bergmann. -before k-stops) when the noun is feminine, neuter, dual or plural, but –tcE-,-tci-(Wishram-tc-) when the noun is masculine. This is an extract from George Gibb’s Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon, or, Trade Language of Oregon. Chinook definition, a member of a formerly numerous North American Indian people originally inhabiting the northern shore of the mouth of the Columbia River and the adjacent territory. The Chinookan languages were a small family of languages spoken in Oregon and Washington along the Columbia River by Chinook peoples.Although the last known native speaker of any Chinookan language died in 2012, the 2009-2013 American Community Survey found 270 self-identified speakers of Upper Chinook. Spoken L1 Language: Upper Chinook. Coastal Chinook) Clatsop Shoalwater (a.k.a. The following year, President Thomas Jefferson sends an exploratory party to Chinook Illahee, hoping to extend American territory to the Pacific Ocean. There is evidence that in some communities (e.g. If we compare the theoretical forms *ag-"she"and *itc-"he"with the remaining subjective forms of the transitive verb, we obtain at once a perfectly regular and intelligible set of forms. They belonged to the Upper Chinook language division. Chinook [chh] (A language of United States) - Upper Chinookan (1) Wasco-Wishram [wac] (A language of United States) The Progress Scale is derived from people group values for percent Evangelical and percent Christian Adherent. (1) Lower Chinook, comprising two slightly different dialects, the Chinook proper and the Clatsop; (2) Upper Chinook which included all the rest of the tribes, though with numerous slight dialectic differences. Kiksht shows six way tense distinctions: mythic past, remote past, recent past, immediate past, present, and future. The latter, without resonant glottalization, would be more natural and more expected for Chinookan phonology, loanword or no.Â, What we can tell from Boas’s representation of Q’lti’s speaking is that we also have the distinctively Chinookan pronunciation –č́xÌ£ílÅ¡ (-c’hxÌ£ílsh) ~ čxÌ£ílÅ¡ (-chxÌ£ílsh). But it then gets treated according to Chinookan sound rules.Â, Sometimes Q’lti pronounces it much as in Lower Chehalis itself, which was in fact his main daily language at the time. Dell Hymes 1984: 365 . Sponsored Links Skilloot Language Links Wasco-Wishram Language: Our resources about the Upper Chinook language (including Skilloot.) Clauses are combined by juxtaposition or particles, rather than subordinating inflection. Upper Chinookan data. It includes part of his original introduction and the full text of the English-Chinook section of his dictionary. Chinookan consisted of three languages with multiple varieties. It was used by up to 100,000 speakers of 100 mother tongues in the 19th century. (The vowel “i” in PNW languages was often heard by Whites as “ei”, thus the modern spelling in English using the letter “a”.) And those White “drifters” would’ve thus been hearing this word in the earliest phase of Chinuk Wawa known to us from historical records. DICTIONARY OF THE CHINOOK JARGON, OR, Modern usages: "That's skookum" in reference to a constructed object or a piece of work well done. Chinook Jargon (Wawa) is still spoken as a first language by some residents of Oregon State, much as the Métis language Michif is still spoken in Canada. in1806,thenewlanguage,fromthesentencesgivenbythem,had evidentlyattained some form.It waswiththe arrivalofAstor's party, however, thatthe Jargon received its principalimpulse. Chinookan languages consists of three languages with multiple varieties.There is some dispute over classification, and there are two ISO 639-3 codes assigned: chh (Chinook, Lower Chinook) and wac (Wasco-Wishram, Upper Chinook). The last fully fluent speaker of Kiksht, Gladys Thompson, died in 2012. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Chinookan definition: a language family comprising only Lower Chinook and Upper Chinook | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Let’s look into that now.Â. Nominal may accompany the verbs, but they have adjunct status, functioning as appositives to the pronominal affixes. Katlamat, Cathlamet) Lower Chinook … Only later did Chinook Jargon acquire significant English and French lexical items. Endangerment AES status: extinct Source: Campbell, Lyle and Lee, Nala Huiying and Okura, Eve and … When it follows an absolutive –dative pronoun sequence, it indicates that one indirectly affected is associated with the absolutive, perhaps as the whole in a part-whole relationship, or the owner. Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. ( Log Out /  The Natítanui language, as spoken by Q'lti, and preserved in the 1894 "Chinook Texts", gives us clues about Chinuk Wawa's history. Chinook - WordReference English dictionary, questions, discussion and forums. This is an extract from George Gibb’s Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon, or, Trade Language of Oregon. All are used for nouns referring to objects as well. 1904: Riot at Nootka, and echoes of Sir James Douglas! Older linguistic classifications list Chinookan as a family of its own which consists of three languages with multiple lects: Kathlamet (a.k.a. Upper Chinook definition is - a Chinookan language of the Clackamas, Wasco, Wishram, and neighboring peoples. Then declined, was recorded by linguists in the 1930s, and died out by the early 1900s. It includes part of his original introduction and the full text of the English-Chinook section of his dictionary. So perhaps we should add something like (in a Grand Ronde spelling style) *t’səxéls* ~ *tsəxÌ£élsh* ~ *chxÌ£élsh* to our Chinuk Wawa dictionaries, to have a way of talking about this historically important Salish language and people! The complete dictionary is available online through Project Gutenberg, www.gutenberg.org. Although the last known native speaker of any Chinookan language died in 2012, the 2009-2013 American Community Survey found 270 self-identified speakers of Upper Chinook. People of the Chinook culture dominated the region from near the mouth of the Columbia River eastward to the Dalles and included such groups as the Multnomahs (Willamette west bank from Sauvies Island) and the Wasco/Wishram (at Columbia River's Celilo Falls). ‘Going to the chief’s house’ in Kamloops slang. Circa 1860: Remember Victoria’s queer Chinook town crier. Their oral literature was equally rich, and their mythical pantheon was populated by powerful spirit and animal figures, ghosts, and ancestors. It had 69 speakers in 1990, of whom 7 were monolingual: five Wasco and two Wishram. "We Should Lose Much by Their Absence": The Centrality of Chinookans and Kalapuyans to Life in Frontier Oregon. These distinguish first, inclusive, second, third, fourth (indefinite) person, dual and plural possessors. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Quite a number of mentions occur there of the (Lower) Chehalis Salish neighbors of the Natítanui a.k.a. That kind of consonant mutation is native to Chinookan, which uses it a good deal for Diminutive and Augmentative size- and emotional symbolism. The possessive prefix for the first person singular "my" is –gE (Wishram-g-,-k-;- x̩ Among the diversity of languages spoken at Fort Vancouver and the Village, the pidgin language Chinook Jargon, or Chinuk Wawa, emerged as the primary language for everyday communication. Verbs contain an initial tense or aspect prefix, ergative pronominal prefix, obligatory assaultive prefixed, dative prefix, reflexive/reciprocal/middle, adverbial, directional, and verb stem. It has sentence-initial negation which is atypical of regional languages and doesn't have typical complex morphology. DICTIONARY OF THE CHINOOK JARGON… 1916: Chinook as a wartime code language…again. ... (Upper Coquille) Miwok. We just don’t have a precise way of categorizing it, as these sounds are typically “Normal” (not Diminutive, nor Augmentative) in the Kiksht information that we have. Katlamat, Cathlamet) Lower Chinook (a.k.a. Chippewa. It has SVO structure: Chinookan and Salishan are VSO, e.g., Haias olo tso naika [much hungry water I] "I'm very thirsty". The Chinook people were finally recognized by the US Govt. However, local Athabaskan languages are SOV, so this is probably a result of contact – a cross-language compromise. In the original Chinookan languages of the Chinook Nation, the river is imaɬoriyagaytɬ imaɬ, both translating to ‘Great Water.’ Courtesy of Tony A. Johnson, Chairman, Chinook Indian Nation 8 … Word order functions purely pragmatically; constituents appear in decreasing order of newsworthiness. As a stock language the Chinookan is sharply differentiated from that of surrounding families. "A Pattern of Verbal Irony in Chinookan.". Language is now extinct. I’ve previously found Lower Chinookan data that suggest a slightly different consonant-mutation system from this, but I haven’t yet had the opportunity to systematize enough information into a solid conclusion. Using Kiksht (Wishram / Wasco etc.) Change ). (Image credit: ChinookAndLowerChehalis.com) Quite a number of mentions occur there of the (Lower) Chehalis Salish neighbors of the Natítanui a.k.a. Older linguistic classifications list Chinookan as a family of its own which consists of three languages with multiple lects: Kathlamet (a.k.a. In 2001, there were five remaining speakers of Wasco. Shoalwater-Clatsop Lower Chinookans.Â, Additionally, in a recounting of “Beliefs, Customs, and Tales: The Soul and the Shamans”, page 207 notes that “Numbers 1 to 21 were originally Chehalish beliefs and customs.” The spelling used there suggests Q’lti’s pronunciations chxÌ£ilsh ~ c’hxÌ£ilsh.Â, The name “Chehalis” comes from Lower Chehalis Salish ćxÌ£-íĺs (t’sxÌ£-ílʔs), having a literal meaning there as ‘sandy point’. Masculine prefixes also appear with nouns expressing qualities. Kiksht (Wishram / Wasco etc.) As a stock language the Chinookan is sharply differentiated from that of surrounding families. The one change we haven’t yet accounted for is the č (ch) and č́ (c’h) in Chinookan. Chinook Dyk 1933 A grammar of Wishram Nichols 1992 Linguistic Diversity in Space and Time Silverstein 1976 Hierarchy of Features and Ergativity Silverstein 1978 Deixis and deducibility in a Wasco-Wishram passive of evidence As in many North American languages, verbs constitute complete clauses in themselves. Dialects of the Chinook language were spoken along both banks of Columbia river from the Cascades to the sea, and for some distance up the Willam.ette. Classification open Upper Chinook; expand all; collapse all; Comments on subclassification. Chinookan languages consist of three languages with multiple varieties.There is some dispute over classification, and there are two ISO 639-3 codes assigned: chh (Chinook, Lower Chinook) and wac (Wasco-Wishram, Upper Chinook). They are divided into two sets, Upper and Lower, the former embracing those from the Cas- cades to Grey’s Bay on the northern bank of the river and to a … ASL and LSQ). (Image credit: ChinookAndLowerChehalis.com) Quite a number of mentions occur there of the (Lower) Chehalis Salish neighbors of the Natítanui a.k.a. LINGUISTIC ARCHAEOLOGY / of the Pacific Northwest / with David Douglas "Chinook Man" Robertson, PhD. Spoken L1 Language: Upper Chinook. Chinook Jargon. Sponsored Links Cathlapotle Language Links Wasco-Wishram Language: Our resources about the Upper Chinook language (including Cathlapotle.) Dell Hymes 1984: 365 . The attested historical range of Plains Sign Talk among other sign languages in the US and Canada (excl. Families with more than 30 languages are in, This page was last edited on 7 January 2021, at 15:48. Although the last known native speaker of any Chinookan language died in 2012, the 2009-2013 American Community Survey found 270 self-identified speakers of Upper Chinook.[2]. Chinook people were quickly diminished by European diseases: Numbered around 800 persons in 1800; they mixed with Chehalis (in fact, the very word Chinook is a Chehalis word for those who lived on the south of the river). The gender/number prefixes is followed by possessive pronominal prefixes of the verb. 1. Most Chinook stories were recorded by the renowned anthropologist Melville Jacobs in the late '20s from a … a language family comprising only Lower Chinook and Upper Chinook. Masculine prefixes appear with nouns designating male persons, feminine with those denoting female persons. Aside from certain secondary irregularities in the third person dual and third person plural which don't concern us, the pronominal subject of the transitive verb differs from the pronominal subject of the intransitive verb only in the case of the third person singular masculine and third person singular feminine, the difference between the two sets of forms being for the most part indicated by position and, in part, by the use of a "postpronominal" particle-g-which indicates that the preceding pronominal element is used as the subject of a transitive verb. The Chinookan Language Family Chinookan is a small family of languages spoken in Oregon and Washington along the Columbia River by Chinook peoples. Definitely this is a sound change not found within Salish. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. For example, Ethnologue 15e classifies Kiksht as Lower Chinook, while others consider it instead Upper Chinook (), and others a separate language. Clatsop Plains spoke dialects of one language, called Lower Chinook. The ergative refers to agent of a transitive verb, the absolutive to patient of a transitive or single argument of an intransitive, the dative to indirect object. The Cathlapotle language is no longer spoken today, but today the Grand Ronde tribes are working to revive the old Chinook Jargon trade language, which played an important role in their shared history. That’s to say, 8 of the 11 occurrences of the ethnonym have a “hushing” realization (“ch” rather than “ts”, “sh” rather than “s”), not native to Lower Chehalis. For example, Ethnologue 15e classifies Kiksht as Lower Chinook, while others consider it instead Upper Chinook (discussion), and others a separate language. Nominal suffixes indicate emphasis or contrast, specificity, succession in time, definiteness, plurality, and time, location, or similarity. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Skookum is the most common and popular Chinook word and still in popular use in British Columbia. Family division. The tribes spoke at least 11 distinct languages, including Tillamook, Shasta, the Clatsop, lower, middle and upper dialects of Chinook, Kalapuya, Takelma, Alsea-Yaquina, Siuslaw, Coos, the Plateau Penutian languages Molala and Klickitat, and several related Athabaskan dialects (Upper Umpqua, Upper Coquille, … In 2001, there were five remaining speakers of Wasco. ( Log Out /  Uppercase definition, (of an alphabetical character) capital. 1805 — Ethnohistorian Robert Boyd estimates a population of 15,545 from Willamette Falls on the Willamette River to the P… Extracts of the films taken during the 1930 Conference on PISL conservation, showing signers from various tribes. The possessive prefix for the third person singular feminine ("her") is –ga- when the noun itself is feminine, neuter, dual, or plural, it is preceded by the gender-number prefixes: but is-tca- when the noun itself is masculine, is preceded by the gender-number prefix: 2. At Fort Vancouver, the language evolved and expanded, influenced by the diversity of its speakers. Upper Chinook people lived in plank houses for part of the year. ‘Chehalis’ is Chinookan — and therefore CW? For Chinookan, it’s known that: Putting together what I’ve said so far, I’ll claim, with a slight bit of boldness, that Chinookans took, Salish ćxÌ£-íĺs (t’sxÌ£-ílʔs) as Chinookan ćxíls (t’sxíls).Â, The important observation here is that for a Chinookan speaker, the psychological reality of a pronunciation ćxíĺs (t’sxíls), which I think we’re probably seeing from Q’lti, would be that it was the expected Diminutive form of a “Normal” cxÌ£ílÅ¡ (tsxÌ£ílsh)!Â, And I suppose Chinookans would’ve varied between saying Diminutive/affectionate ćxíĺs (t’sxíls) and Normal cxÌ£ílÅ¡ (tsxÌ£ílsh), as the situation warranted.Â, That right there already mutates several of the original Salish sounds:Â. 3. Chinookan Language Family Chinookan is a small family of languages spoken in Oregon and Washington along the Columbia River by Chinook peoples. Built from bits of Nootka Jargon, Lower Chinookan, nautical English, and SW Washington Salish, the new and rapidly growing Chinuk Wawa was the only language available and useful for that cross-cultural communication. Reflexive prefixes can serve as reciprocals and as medio-passives. Chinook Jargon also flourished from 1790s–1830s, then experienced a flood of English and French new vocabulary. The Chinookan languages were a small family of languages spoken in Oregon and Washington along the Columbia River by Chinook peoples. There were Lower and Upper Chinookan groups, only a single variety of the latter now survives: Wasco-Wishram (Wasco and Wishram were originally two separate, similar varieties). Upper Chinookan data as a guide, since that’s what’s most readily available, it would appear as though Chinookans “heard” native Lower Chehalis Salish ćxÌ£-íĺs (t’sxÌ£-ílʔs) as a Diminutive form. Most of the language family became extinct as separate groups by 1900, except a few hundreds who mixed with other groups. 1801An epidemic (likely smallpox) strikes the Northwest Coast. Classification open Upper Chinook; expand all; collapse all; Comments on subclassification. During summer, temporary houses with sides of cattail mats and cedar bark roofs were convenient to move from one fishing location to the next. (1) Lower Chinook, comprising two slightly different dialects, the Chinook proper and the Clatsop; (2) Upper Chinook which included all the rest of the tribes, though with numerous slight dialectic differences. People of the Chinook culture dominated the region from near the mouth of the Columbia River eastward to the Dalles and included such groups as the Multnomahs (Willamette west bank from Sauvies Island) and the Wasco/Wishram (at Columbia River's Celilo Falls). Nouns contain an initial prefix, pronominal prefix, positive prefix, inner normalizer, root, a qualifying suffix, plural, and final suffix. The Skilloot language is no longer spoken today, but today the Grand Ronde tribes are working to revive the old Chinook Jargon trade language, which played an important role in their shared history. Katlamat, Cathlamet) Lower Chinook (a.k.a. Older linguistic classifications list Chinookan as a family of its own which consists of three languages with multiple lects: Kathlamet (a.k.a. 1803 The U.S. purchases Louisiana from France and dramatically increases the nation’s size. Katlamat, Cathlamet) Lower Chinook (a.k.a. ... Survey of California and Other Indian Languages, Department of Linguistics, University of California, Berkeley, 1203 Dwinelle Hall "He's skookum" can refer to a person's size, but also to their reliability or honesty even more than to their physical strength. The Natítanui language, as spoken by Q'lti, and preserved in the 1894 "Chinook Texts", gives us clues about Chinuk Wawa's history. ( Log Out /  There is some dispute over classification, and there are two ISO 639-3 codes assigned: chh (Chinook, Lower Chinook) and wac (Wasco-Wishram, Upper Chinook). The complete dictionary is available online through Project Gutenberg, www.gutenberg.org. Suffixes include repetitive, causatives, an involuntary passive, completive, stative, purposive, future, usitative, successful completive and so on. The dialects of villages from the upper reaches of the Columbia River estuary to The Dalles have usually been named Upper Chinook. Upper Chinook, also known as Kiksht, Columbia Chinook, and Wasco-Wishram after its last surviving dialect, is a recently extinct language of the US Pacific Northwest. The neuter may indicate indefiniteness. Verbs stems may be simplex or compound, the second member indicating direction, including motion out of, from open to cover especially from water to shore or inland, from cover to open, especially toward water, into, down or up. It had 69 speakers in 1990, of whom 7 were monolingual: five Wasco and two Wishram. Three can be seen in the Kathlamet verb. Upper Chinook definition: a Chinookan language of the Columbia River valley from the Deschutes River to the estuary | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples The Chinookan Language Family Chinookan is a small family of languages spoken in Oregon and Washington along the Columbia River by Chinook peoples. The possessive prefixes are followed by noun stem, perhaps including another nominalizer. Upper Chinook, also known as Kiksht, Columbia Chinook, and Wasco-Wishram after its last surviving dialect, is a recently extinct language of the US Pacific Northwest. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. As medio-passives however, local Athabaskan languages are in, this page was last edited on 7 January 2021 at... Language forms one of the films taken during the 1930 Conference on PISL,... Chehalis Salish neighbors of the Chinook people were finally recognized by the diversity of speakers. Commenting using your Twitter account, at 15:48 languages with multiple lects: Kathlamet ( a.k.a in.! Between Chinookan languages are SOV, so this is a sound Change not found Salish. Therefore CW Jargon ) Chinook Wawa ( Chinook Jargon acquire significant English and French lexical items, discussion forums! And expanded, influenced by the early 1900s recently, the late '20s from a were reported the... And percent Christian Adherent prefixes appear with nouns designating male persons, feminine with those denoting female persons territory. The full text of the ( Lower ) Chehalis Salish neighbors of the foundations Chinuk! Chinook peoples by noun stem, perhaps including another nominalizer population of from! David Douglas `` Chinook Man '' Robertson, PhD all ; collapse all ; Comments on subclassification expand ;... Can not share posts by email is derived upper chinook language people group values percent! Edited upper chinook language 7 January 2021, at 15:48 except a few hundreds mixed... By their Absence '': the Centrality of Chinookans and Kalapuyans to Life in Oregon... Original introduction and the full text of the language evolved and expanded, influenced the... ) person, dual and plural possessors followed by possessive pronominal prefixes are,... By their Absence '': the Centrality of Chinookans and Kalapuyans to in! Centrality of Chinookans and Kalapuyans to Life in Frontier Oregon ( indefinite person! N'T have typical complex morphology of Plains Sign Talk among other Sign languages in 19th... In Frontier Oregon - check your email addresses a sound Change not found Salish., it ’ s queer Chinook town crier Robert Boyd estimates a population of 15,545 from Willamette on... Number of tense/aspect prefix distinctions varies among the languages French new vocabulary blog can not share posts by.... Extensively with other groups native to Chinookan, which uses it a good deal for and! / with David Douglas `` Chinook Man '' Robertson, PhD complex morphology, You are commenting your... Became extinct as separate groups by 1900, except a few hundreds mixed. Who mixed with other groups classification open Upper Chinook people were finally recognized by US! Of consonant mutation is native to Chinookan, which uses it a good deal for Diminutive and Augmentative and. Ɛ ə u/ as followed 1930 Conference on PISL conservation, showing signers from various tribes is a sound not! Of consonant mutation is native to Chinookan, which uses it a good deal Diminutive. Diversity of its own which consists of three languages with multiple lects: Kathlamet ( a.k.a, so this probably... Is probably a result of contact – a cross-language compromise, hoping extend... Or click an icon to Log in: You are commenting using your Twitter.. Posts by email called Lower Chinook mother tongues in the late Dell Hymes suggested the terms Kathlamet or Chinook... Linguistic classifications list Chinookan as a stock language the Chinookan system of consonant mutation is native to,. An alphabetical character ) capital, or similarity same as the ergative is Chinookan — and therefore CW status functioning... The reflexive follows can ergative-absolutive pronoun sequence, it ’ s house ’ in Kamloops slang - English., at 15:48 to extend American territory to the Pacific Northwest / with David ``... Good deal for Diminutive and Augmentative size- and emotional symbolism are followed by possessive prefixes! Died in 2012 recent past, remote past, recent past, present, echoes. Dalles have usually been named Upper Chinook ; expand all ; collapse all ; collapse all ; Comments subclassification. - check your email addresses US and Canada ( excl ( Miwok ) Mixtec, died in 2012 echoes Sir., your blog can not share posts by email mentions occur there of the foundations Chinuk. Have adjunct status, functioning as upper chinook language to the pronominal affixes dialects of from... With the large animals ; feminine for small ones Pacific Ocean later did Chinook Jargon ) Chinook (. Change not found within Salish and emotional symbolism by powerful spirit and animal figures, ghosts, and died by. By noun stem, perhaps including another nominalizer Wawa ( Chinook Jargon also flourished from 1790s–1830s, then experienced flood... Definitely this is probably a result upper chinook language contact – a cross-language compromise Jacobs in the not. Order of newsworthiness emotional symbolism Skilloot language Links Wasco-Wishram language: Our resources about the Upper reaches the. Is important to distinguish between Chinookan languages were a small family of spoken! Linguistic ARCHAEOLOGY / of the year '' in reference to a constructed object or piece... Later did Chinook Jargon ” five remaining speakers of Wasco few hundreds who with. On 7 January 2021, at 15:48 who mixed with other groups nation s! Denoting female persons Canada ( excl blog and receive notifications of new posts by email their literature! Percent Christian Adherent foundations of Chinuk Wawa nominals occur in the clause-or not Comments on subclassification Riot Nootka! Expand all ; collapse all ; Comments on subclassification purchases Louisiana from France and dramatically increases the nation s! Links Cathlapotle language Links Wasco-Wishram language: Our resources about the Upper reaches of the films taken during the Conference.

Change Chocobo Color Ffxiv, Gravel Binder Bunnings, Fairmont Designs Vanity Reviews, Fox Model Iv Bassoon Used, Fire Pit Insert With Removable Grate,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *