Food Sci. The electrons in the CB reduce oxygen, which is adsorbed by the photocatalyst [22]. (ii) The chemistry of the media: the pH, UV illumination, exposure time, and existence of other elements. doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2007.11.081, R. Karmali, A. Bartakke, V. Borker, K. Rane, Bactericidal action of N doped ZnO in sunlight. The most commonly used method is the broth dilution method, followed by colony count, through plating serial culture broths dilutions which contained ZnO-NPs and the targeted bacteria in appropriate agar medium and incubated. Many pronounced applications are being currently explored in the biomedical and antiviral areas. INT was added to the cultures in 96-plates and incubated 30 min until a color change occurred. Opt. Particles synthesized with their process exhibited strong luminescence with quantum yields as high as 42%. NLM Liu et al. doi:10.1088/0034-4885/72/12/126501, Y. Zhang, M.K. ZnO-NPs possess unique properties and excellent stability with long life compared with organic-based disinfectants that stimulated its use as antibacterial agent. Alloys Compd. Moreover, the effect of different sizes of ZnO-NPs (307, 212, 142, 88, and 30 nm) on bacterial growth at 6 mM concentration was studied. It is also obvious that ZnO-NPs activity was concentration dependent. Wong, P.T. They concluded that ZnO-NPs synthesized by wet chemical method are potential antibacterial agents in food preservation and packaging. Review on Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles: Antibacterial Activity and Toxicity Mechanism. AEEE 3(6), 771–778 (2013), S. Pal, Y.K. Chem. [50] have used the flow cytometry viability assays to examine ZnO-NPs toxicity toward E. coli and S. aureus. doi:10.1039/c3nr34254a, J.Y. Lett. Ranjit, A.C. The hexagonal wurtzite structure possesses lattice spacing a = 0.325 nm and c = 0.521 nm, the ratio c/a ~ 1.6 that is very close to the ideal value for hexagonal cell c/a = 1.633. The photocatalysis is described as a photo-induced oxidation process that can damage and inactivate organisms [67]. Škapin, D. Uskoković, Morphology Controlled hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO particles and examination of their antibacterial properties on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacterial cultures, in Tenth Young Researchers’ Conference—Materials Science and Engineering, Belgrade, Serbia, 21–23 December 2011 (Institute of Technical Sciences of SASA, Belgrade, 2011), p. 62, V. Berry, A. Gole, S. Kundu, C.J. This review attempts to provide an overview of the fundamental principles of deagglomeration and stabilization of nanoparticles as well as describe the main processing steps Surface defects play an important role; Ramani et al. Sanders, J.M. Lett. In a similar manner, Xie et al. 1a), and the black and gray-shaded spheres symbolize O and Zn atoms, respectively. J. Photochem. Mostly, the selected method depends on the desired application, as different methods produce different morphologies and also different sizes of ZnO particles. Moreover, the surface properties affect the reactions on the bacterial cell walls. J. Med. H2O2 generation mainly relies on the surface of ZnO-NPs to yield additional active molecules. volume 7, pages219–242(2015)Cite this article. These factors influence a variety of toxicity mechanisms. The agar diffusion method (an indirect method) is the most frequently used method and has been standardized as an official method for detecting bacteriostatic activity by the (ATCC). Technol. Kelf, W.H. Several studies have believed that the leaked Zn2+ into growth media responsible for ZnO nanotoxicity and the dissolution of ZnO-NPs into Zn2+ were found as size dependent. Epub 2017 Aug 26. Lu, Zinc oxide nanostructures: synthesis and properties. This technology is capable of providing miscellaneous novel applications that range from innovative fabric compounds, food processing, and agricultural production to sophisticated medicinal techniques [1]. Sirelkhatim, A., Mahmud, S., Seeni, A. et al. Sci. Raghupathi, R.T. Koodali, A.C. It was found to exhibit higher antibacterial activities to E. coli under visible light or in the dark. Correspondence to Res. However, the toxicity mechanism varies in various media as the species of dissolved Zn may change according to the medium components besides the physicochemical properties of ZnO-NPs [59]. Cruz, E.A.A. 14(10), 4172–4177 (2002). Annealing of ZnO powder has much effect in increasing the inhibition. Narayanan et al. The abrasive property of ZnO has been recognized and referred to its surface defects [100]. However, some metal oxides are highly toxic, for example, Al2O3 toxicity toward many cells [8]. Currently, it was found that Zn2+ of ZnO is capable to interact with protein and has a potential effect to HSV-1 pathogenesis [109]. Stark, In vitro cytotoxicity of oxide nanoparticles: comparison to asbestos, silica, and the effect of particle solubility. 41(24), 8484–8490 (2007). In this paper, we have extensively reviewed ideas behind the antibacterial activity of ZnO-NPs covering techniques of evaluating bacteria viability. These different morphologies displayed pronounced antibacterial effect toward the targeted bacteria. by B. Valdez (InTech Europe, Rijeka, 2012), pp. This was accomplished by diluting the 0.5 McFarland suspension 1:150, resulting in a tube containing approximately 1 × 106 CFU mL−1. Earlier studies have shown the potential of ZnO NPs in stimulation of seed germination and plant growth as well as disease suppression and plant protection by its antimicrobial activity. Yun, H.-S. Shin, Formation of ZnO micro-flowers prepared via solution process and their antibacterial activity. TiO2 and TiO2–Ag antimicrobial thin films, in 2011 International Conference on Nanoscience, Technology and Societal Implications (NSTSI), Bhubaneswar, USA, 8–10 December 2011 (IEEE, 2011), pp. Afr. Mater. doi:10.1016/j.colsurfb.2012.07.033, J.M. [85] proposed that the most probable mechanisms can be influenced by surface modifications because both the liberation of Zn2+ ions and ROS creation occur on NPs surface. ZnO powder was annealed at 700 °C in an annealing tube furnace (model Lenton) under oxygen ambient for 1 h. The gas flow was regulated at 2.4 L min−1. Such unique ZnO nanostructures reflected the richest nanoconfiguration assembly compared to other nano-metal oxides, in terms of properties and structure, such as nanobelts, nanocages, nanocombs and nanosprings/nanohelixes [19]. Ann, S. Mahmud, S.K.M. Manna, Antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticle suspensions on a broad spectrum of microorganisms. Bakhori, A. Sirelkhatim, D. Mohamad, H. Hasan, A. Seeni, R.A. Rahman, Antibacterial responses of zinc oxide structures against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pyogenes. doi:10.1021/la0202374, J.S. 42, 4419–4421 (2007). Stoimenov, R.L. Such species are extremely essential for bio-applications [68]. This result confirmed that the antibacterial activity also depended on the size, and it was probably due to the internalization and subsequent accumulation of NPs inside the cells until the particles reached the cytoplasmic region. While alternative studies reported the activity even in the dark [56, 74]. doi:10.1002/jbm.b.31620, S.W. Furthermore, the authors used SEM analyses to examine the morphological changes. The cell wall maintains the osmotic pressure of the cytoplasm as well the characteristic cell shape. Mater. 5a–c. After addition, the mixtures were exposed to vigorous vortex (e.g., 5 min) or kept overnight on magnetic stirring and then ultrasonicated 20–30 min to avoid aggregation and deposition of particles. The dissolution of ZnO-NPs into Zn2+ was reported as size dependent, and few studies suggested this dissolution of Zn2+ responsible for toxicity of ZnO-NPs. doi:10.1016/j.ceramint.2009.09.026, L.C. 292, 405–412 (2014). These nanostructures have been fabricated using variety of physical and chemical techniques; however, the chemical techniques allow better control of the particle size and morphology [30]. [100] also proposed this electrostatic interaction between NPs and bacteria cell surface as a cause of growth inhibition, and that the total bacterial charge is negative, because of the excessive formation of separated carboxyl groups. 3(1), 1–6 (2013), E.E. The creation of ROS seems to be contradictory since a number of studies have revealed this mechanism under light exposure, as mentioned earlier. Bammidi, Synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanoparticles and its antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. [32] have synthesized flower-shaped ZnO nanostructures which were produced via solution process at low temperature (90 °C) using the zinc acetate dihydrate and NaOH. Singh, V. Gupta, Role of surface adsorbed anionic species in antibacterial activity of ZnO quantum dots against Escherichia coli. doi:10.1088/1468-6996/9/3/035004, K.R. This composition contributes in the electrical conductivity of the cellular structure. Nanoparticle zinc oxide, ZnO, is a form of zinc oxide where the compound is formed into individual particles as small as 20 nanometers in diameter. Espitia, N.d.F.F. Zinc oxide nanoparticles: Synthesis, antiseptic activity and toxicity mechanism. J. Appl. Trends Food Sci. Sci. 8(2), 904–915 (2012). 20(1), 235–241 (2009). doi:10.1021/pr0504079, H. Meruvu, M. Vangalapati, S.C. Chippada, S.R. [87] observed the morphology-dependent release of Zn2+ ions on spherical structures that had the highest increase in the release of Zn2+ ions than rod structures. Food Addit. In the subsequent sections, we have discussed the factors affecting the antibacterial activity, including UV illumination, ZnO particle size, concentration, morphology, surface modifications by annealing, surface defects, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). 18(8), 939–944 (2008). The electron and hole interacts with water (H2O) to produce •OH and H+. doi:10.1128/AEM.02218-06, B. Ashe, A Detail investigation to observe the effect of zinc oxide and Silver nanoparticles in biological system, M.Sc. ZnO nanostructures have been a subject of immense research owing to their multifunctional properties in diverse applications. 9(7), 1181–1189 (2013), Y. Matsumura, K. Yoshikata, S.-I. the textile industry, in Bionanotechnology II Global Prospects, ed. A possible research avenue is the combinations with other classes of antibacterial agents such as the application of ZnO-NPs as supporter of silver NPs, which are antibacterial agents that contain silver as precursor. 20(1), 59–64 (2013), B. Yalcin, S. Otles, Intelligent food packaging, http://www.logforum.net/vol4/issue4/no3. J. Colloid Interface Sci. doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2007.07.156, Z. In general, a correspondence between NPs size and bacteria appears to be required for the bioactivity of ZnO-NPs, as well the concentration. 69(7), 4278–4281 (2003). Cortie, Zinc oxide particles: synthesis, properties and applications. Figure 1b shows typical bacteria cell structures [45]. Whereas gram-negative bacteria wall is composed of two cell membranes, an outer membrane and a plasma membrane with a thin layer of peptidoglycan [44] with a thickness of 7–8 nm. a ZnO crystal structures. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The researchers explained the production of ROS (OH−, H2O2, and \({\text{O}}_{2}^{2 - }\)) on ZnO surface and proposed a correlation between photon reactions and the antibacterial activity as follows. Health. Particular emphasize was given to bactericidal and bacteriostatic mechanisms with focus on generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), OH− (hydroxyl radicals), and O2 The data showed that ZnO-NPs interacted with E. coli membrane wall resulting in considerable wall damages, which in turn collapsed the cell membrane. Microbiol. Meanwhile, solutions would be suggested to consequences of health-related problems by addressing this complex through research and scientific reports. 3(7), 643–646 (2001). 5(10), 1675–1681 (2010). ZnONPs show cancer cell specific toxicity via the pH-dependent (low pH) dissolution into Zn2+ ions, which generate reactive oxygen species and induce cytotoxicity in cancer cells. The number of viable cells recovered, at a certain point of growth, showed significant decrease with decreasing ZnO-NPs particle size (Fig. It is considered as the synthesis, characterization, and exploration of materials in the nanometer region (1–100 nm). doi:10.1016/j.colsurfa.2014.05.057, X. Wang, H.-F. Wu, Q. Kuang, R.-B. Photobiol. Chem. It is known as II–VI semiconductor [17], since Zn and O are classified into groups two and six in the periodic table, respectively. ROS has been a major factor for several mechanisms including cell wall damage due to ZnO-localized interaction, enhanced membrane permeability, internalization of NPs due to loss of proton motive force and uptake of toxic dissolved zinc ions. Green technology (biosynthesis) is playing a vital role in the synthesis of nanoparticles due to low cost, non-toxicity and other environmental advantages. Additionally, Zn2+ release would be limited by an inherent ZnO property, mentioned earlier ZnO stability in water. The emergence of nanotechnology assisted to present novel food packaging materials with antimicrobial properties and with novel nano-sensors to trace and monitor the food [135]. doi:10.1007/s11947-012-0797-6, G. Zhou, Y. Li, W. Xiao, L. Zhang, Y. Zuo, J. Xue, J.A. The unique properties and versatility of ZnO pave the way to use various methods to synthesize various ZnO nanostructures. Environ. Nano. doi:10.2147/IJN.S45439, V.B. [125] varied the pH value of the starting reaction solution from 8 to 12 that enabled in changing the morphology from micro-rods to nano-spheres, resulting in an efficient bacteriostatic activity. Naqvi, N. Badshah, Sn doping induced enhancement in the activity of ZnO nanostructures against antibiotic resistant S. aureus bacteria. Epub 2019 May 31. S. aureus plating for colony count [13]. Bokhari, M. Khalid, Synthesis, antibacterial, lipoxygenase and urease inhibitory activities of 2-aminophenol derivatives. Review on zinc oxide nanoparticles: antibacterial activity and toxicity mechanism. Yu, J.-H. Kim, S.J. These new materials with improved antimicrobial properties permit also tracking of food during storage and transfer. Science 312(5771), 242–246 (2006). doi:10.1016/j.nano.2010.10.001, J. Sawai, Quantitative evaluation of antibacterial activities of metallic oxide powders (ZnO, MgO and CaO) by conductimetric assay. Mann, K. Moore, L.J. Mater. In this way, Zhang et al. 11, 25–34 (2010). Toxicol. The culture was then transferred to a fresh medium without ZnO-NPs. A 41(12), 2699–2711 (2006). Zinc oxide nanoparticles mitigated the effects of NaCl, and in this application of lower concentrations (15 mg L-1) was more effective than a higher concentration (30 mg L-1). However, there are some variations in the established laboratory methods and protocols in the assessment of the bactericidal activity [53]. Food Res. 225(2), 294–304 (2014). doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2011.01.014, J. Sawai, E. Kawada, F. Kanou, H. Igarashi, A. Hashimoto, T. Kokugan, M. Shimizu, Detection of active oxygen generated from ceramic powders having antibacterial activity. Raghupathi et al. 50(6), 06GF05–06GF05-4 (2011). Chem. Appl. The OD (600 nm) was measured after 16 h incubation at 37 °C. Seil, T.J. Webster, Antimicrobial applications of nanotechnology: methods and literature. Manna, Size-dependent bacterial growth inhibition and mechanism of antibacterial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles. 45(5), 1977–1983 (2011). On contrast, Sawai [48] and Jiang et al. [33] have synthesized the flower-shaped, prism, snowflakes, and rod-like morphologies ZnO, at a high temperature of 180 °C for 13 h. The researchers also prepared prism-like and prickly sphere-like ZnO via decomposition process at 100 °C for 13 h. These nanostructures plus others such as nanowires, nanoplates, and nanorods have been key factors for the antibacterial activity, as each morphology accounts for a certain mechanism of action. [97] proposed the orientation of ZnO which affects the biocidal activity of ZnO because of its various randomly oriented spatial configurations, which exhibits higher antibacterial action compared with those of regularly arranged structures [12, 80]. doi:10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2013.01.004, J. Ma, J. Liu, Y. Bao, Z. Zhu, X. Wang, J. Zhang, Synthesis of large-scale uniform mulberry-like ZnO particles with microwave hydrothermal method and its antibacterial property. Also, Jones et al. Acta Biomater. NPs size within such ranges can readily pass through the peptidoglycan and hence are highly susceptible to damage. A parallel study was made by Jalal et al. Jpn. The positive effects of sunlight have been known for many years, and the negative ones, too. doi:10.1080/10934520600966177, Y. Xie, Y. Nanotechnology 22(10), 105101 (2011). Given their small size, NPs have larger structures in comparison with their counterparts. Moreover, the UV illumination increased the percentage inhibition of bacteria (Fig. 210–218, M. Ramani, S. Ponnusamy, C. Muthamizhchelvan, From zinc oxide nanoparticles to microflowers: a study of growth kinetics and biocidal activity. Researchers analyzing morphological bacterial changes are induced by ZnO using SEM or FESEM to quantify the multiple mechanisms. Such consistent results give a sign of possibly further mechanisms so far to be determined to produce reactive species without illumination and in dark. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are considered as a biosafe material for biological species. Prog. Similarly, increasing the concentration of the ZnO dispersions to 10 mM with extended exposure time (30 min) has inhibited totally E. coli growth [36]. Therefore, ZnO-rod tends to have relatively higher O:Zn ratio than other ZnO-structures, i.e., higher amounts of oxygen atoms on rod surface, which generates ROS causing intense oxidative stress toward the bacteria. J. Chem. Biomaterials 32(7), 1906–1914 (2011). B 1(4), 454–463 (2013). This scientific review report is limited to the review of safety concerns surrounding zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) present in sunscreens. Tang, Comparative eco-toxicities of nano-ZnO particles under aquatic and aerosol exposure modes. doi:10.1007/s10856-008-3548-5, A.L. Adams, D.Y. The conventional approach uses a passive barrier to protect food against the surrounding atmosphere [141]. Langmuir 27(7), 4020–4028 (2011). doi:10.1007/s00216-009-3249-z, B. Wu, Y. Wang, Y.-H. Lee, A. Horst, Z. Wang, D.-R. Chen, R. Sureshkumar, Y.J. 90(21), 213902 (2007). Bioelectron. ), Novel Food Packaging Techniques (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2003), N.D. Kruijf, M.V. 305(1), 85–95 (2015). Protection of food from microbial pollution is one of the main purposes in food packaging [140]. [8] fulfilled their antibacterial tests using four types of NPs (TiO2, MgO, CuO, and CeO2) which have not considerably inhibited the bacteria growth (more than 10 mM). Bacterial culture conditions for the antibacterial tests were conducted. doi:10.1016/S0167-7012(03)00037-X, S.O. Nanotechnol. [95] against two pathogens enterotoxic E. coli and Vibrio cholerae, causative agents of diarrheal diseases leading to death. 7, 2767–2781 (2012). This is as a result of their potential biocompatibility over other metal oxides, solubility in alkaline medium, and the Zn–O terminated polar surfaces [26]. We now gradually discover that the impact of zinc on the health of our body might be as far-reaching as that of iron. We found that UVA illumination had significantly influenced the interaction of both ZnO samples with the targeted bacteria compared with unexposed ZnO. In addition, the authors performed the tests in dark, and observed that the antimicrobial effect was weaker. J. Med. This current review aimed to discuss and analyze research works that addressed the potential use of ZnO-NPs for antibacterial activity. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2011.09.030, D. Guo, H. Bi, B. Liu, Q. Wu, D. Wag, Y. Cui, Reactive oxygen species-induced cytotoxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles in rat retinal ganglion cells. Exposure of only 20 min increased the inhibition of E. coli by 18 % (ZnO-rod) and 13 % (ZnO-plate), whereas, for S. aureus, 22 % increase for treated with ZnO-rod and 21 % with ZnO-plate, compared with the unexposed. B 117, 233–239 (2014). [36] have synthesized ZnO powder hydrothermally with the addition of different stabilizing agents leading to different nanostructures. Bell, D.G. Nano-Micro Lett. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) had been in recent studies due to its large bandwidth and high exciton binding energy and it has potential applications like antibacterial, antifungal, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, antioxidant and optic properties. Other direct test methods, such as the measurement of urease inhibition of inocula, have been reported [54]. Zinc oxide nanoparticles are nanoparticles of zinc oxide (ZnO) that have diameters less than 100 nanometers. Park, Y.H. While Stanković et al. In case of E. coli O157:H7 (a major foodborne pathogen) showed 100 % growth inhibition in the presence of a ZnO concentration which is approximately 8–32 times that used for C. jejuni. Reddy et al. Nanotechnology is a research hot spot in modern materials science. The TGA has been continuously monitoring the emerging scientific literature in this area and working cooperatively with international regulatory agencies to ensure that ap… Thus, developing novel antibacterial agents against bacteria strains, mostly major food pathogens, such as Escherichia coli O157:H, Campylobacter jejuni, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella types, and Clostridium perfringens, has become utmost demand. Microbiol. Van de Walle, Fundamentals of zinc oxide as a semiconductor. Release of Zn2+ ions and adhesion on the cell membrane cause mechanical damage to the cell wall. Thus, the mechanism related to the formation of ROS in bacteria and cell line was clearly examined by the measurement of ROS level using DCFH-DA [111]. However, the precise mechanisms are yet under debate, although several proposed ones are suggested and adopted. by J.A.T. 1(1), 14–20 (2010). Each year, 1 million people in the UK acquire foodborne illness, 20,000 people undergo hospitalization, and 500 deaths. Int. 40(19), 3527–3532 (2006). Further discussions are in Sect. Sawai et al. The broad range of applications raises concern in regards to their potential toxicity. Limbach, A. Bruinink, W.J. Klinger, G.L. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) as a novel nanofertilizer: Influence on seed yield and antioxidant defense system in soil grown soybean (Glycine max cv. Our results were in consistence with Raghupathi et al. 199(3), 389–397 (2010). doi:10.1252/jcej.29.627, N.M. Franklin, N.J. Rogers, S.C. Apte, G.E. Size-dependent bactericidal activity was also extensively evaluated by Raghupathi et al. 185, 1–22 (2012). Chem. 1–6. 6(4), 866–870 (2006). 36(12), 1766–1782 (2011). [122] summarized that Zn2+ release mechanism affected by two main parameters: (i) the physicochemical properties of the particles including porosity, concentration, particle size, and morphology. Chan, H.K. The properties can be tailored by shape and size, resulting in renewable applications relevant to their structural properties. [74] by testing ZnO-NPs toward E. coli. 8(1), 3679–3687 (2013). Biol. The electronic band structure of ZnO, as a semiconductor material consists of a conduction band (CB) and a valence band (VB). The nanostructured ZnO has been emerged as a potential candidate for applications in sensors, energy harvesting, and many electronic devices. doi:10.1116/1.2815690, J.W. Kim, E. Kuk, K.N. [84] increased the surface area of ZnO nanorods by annealing under oxygen and air to stimulate formation of nanoholes on the surface to increase the surface area, and on turn have caused high absorption and diffusion of oxygen molecules onto the surface upon UV light exposure, which consequently assisted in generating more ROS on the surface. a–f Growth analysis curves and cells viability percentage, at selected ZnO concentrations. On the other hand, such doped ZnO can alternatively be used in skin lotions and in UV protection than undoped ZnO. 9(3), 035004 (2008). J. Biomed. Trends Food Sci. −2 (peroxide). Soc. While others, such as Yamamoto [51] enhanced the antibacterial activity of ZnO-NPs by modulating within the procedure. This was attributed to the increased reactivity of small size NPs, as the generated amount of H2O2 is significantly dependent on the surface area of ZnO-NPs [12]. The noble properties and attractive characteristics of ZnO-NPs confer significant toxicity to organisms, which have made ZnO-NPs successful candidate among other metal oxides. However, this will necessitates further researches to adequately scrutinize the NPs properties. Meanwhile Sawai et al. B 102, 21–28 (2013). B 109(18), 8889–8898 (2005). Mater. At this level, the properties and functions of living and anthropogenic systems are defined . g Growth curves through optical density (OD600 nm) measurements. O–ZnO nanowires) through UV light decomposition process. [91] reported that the MIC of ZnO-NPs (30 nm) toward C. jejuni (0.05–0.25 mg mL−1) was 8–16-fold lesser than E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica serovar Enteritidis (0.4 mg mL−1). Once ZnO-NPs are in the growth media, they will carry on releasing peroxides covering the entire surfaces of the dead bacteria. Zhou et al. This result confirms the potent antibacterial effect of ZnO-NPs toward this particular bacterial species at much reduced concentrations, and this finding is highly beneficial in food packaging. 155–174. 2011, 628203 (2011). This resulted in a 1:2 dilution of each ZnO concentration and a 1:2 dilution of the inoculums 5 × 105 CFU mL−1. Appl. doi:10.1006/scdb.2001.0282, N. Talebian, S.M. ZnO is a bio-safe material that possesses photo-oxidizing and photocatalysis impacts on chemical and biological species. Wang, J. ZnO-NPs concentrations that are 20–100 times were required for decreasing 1–2 logs of cells viability. Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. Cerqueira, A.A. Vicente, J. Teixeira, in Engineering Aspects of Milk and Dairy Products: Active and Intelligent Packaging for Milk and Milk Products, ed. Thus, these species are found on the outer surface of the bacteria, by contrast, H2O2 molecules are able to pass through the bacterial cell wall, subsequently leading to injuries and destroy, and finally triggering cell death [40, 88]. 3h). Also, under controlled growth conditions, the surface morphology is determined by the surface activity. They considered that the antibacterial activity rate was much improved by decreasing the initial number of bacterial cells from 102 to 106 colony forming unit (CFU). c Such reactive species are superoxide anion (O2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxide (OH−). Finally, its side effects to vital body organs with mechanism via different exposure routes, the future direction of the ZnONPs research and application are also discussed. Bakhori, A. Sirelkhatim, D. Mohamad, H. Hasan, A. Seeni, R.A. Rahman, Effect of surface modification and UVA photoactivation on antibacterial bioactivity of zinc oxide powder. Sci. doi:10.1143/JJAP.50.06GF05, Y. Leung, C. Chan, A. Ng, H. Chan, M. Chiang, A. Djurišić, Y. Ng, W. Jim, M. Guo, F. Leung, Antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles with a modified surface under ambient illumination. Swenson, in Methods for Determining Bactericidal Activity of Antimicrobial Agents; Approved Guideline, vol. doi:10.1063/1.2742324, O. Yamamoto, Influence of particle size on the antibacterial activity of zinc oxide. This review covered ZnO-NPs antibacterial activity including testing methods, impact of UV illumination, ZnO particle properties (size, concentration, morphology, and defects), particle surface modification, and minimum inhibitory concentration. [13] showed that enhanced ZnO antibacterial activity was due to the increased ROS production from ZnO under UV exposure. Kim, J.Y. Hsu et al. Leung, W.K. Its longer durability, higher selectivity, and heat resistance are preceded than organic and inorganic materials [12]. As it is known that ZnO absorbs UV light, it has an excellent photocatalytic property, thus it is believed that UV stimulated the ZnO in the mixture to release electrons, which leads to produce more oxygen within the mixture. Colloids Surf. [9] who obtained strong antibacterial activity against E. coli at increased concentration. Production of ROS by metal NPs in cell lines has been revealed by several studies [111–113], and referred to the inhibition of the respiratory enzymes [114]. Today 10(5), 40–48 (2007). ( 8 ), Y.G cytoplasm contains proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids salts. Important variations in cell physiology, cell wall, and hydroxide ( OH− ) zinc oxide nanoparticles review which is linear! To inhibition compared to Ag-NPs cancer cells ( Hep-2 ) Chakraborti, Louka. Prevention of bacterial cells number, contribute to the higher concentration of ZnO divided into metallurgical and chemical methods explored. Additives that have diameters less than 100 nanometers major foodborne pathogens is increasing, due to the investigated parameters (! Packaging systems as an emergent approach in food packaging and towards foodborne pathogen such doped ZnO nanostructures to functional... ( H2O2 ), S. Dogan, V. Borker, K. Rekha, A. Bulychev, S. Dimitrijević,.. Cells, thus inhibit or kill microorganisms bacteria growth rates substitute approach to engineer a safer zinc oxide nanoparticles sources... Take advantage of the pH, and existence of other elements whereas, flower-shaped have higher. R. Wahab, Y.-S. Kim, A. Horst, Z. Emami-Karvani, P. 2, K.M | review... Antibacterial influence of essential physiochemical and structural factors ( Fig Phanichphantand, nanostructures. Sizes of ZnO have ( 100 ) facets exhibit higher antibacterial activity by FESEM to quantify the mechanisms..., 4035–4040 ( 2011 ), 1–6 ( 2012 ), completed an investigation how. Species without illumination and in bionanomedicine for many antibacterial applications 98 ( 4 ), example! A brief presentation of an ultraviolet photoconductive sensor using well-aligned aluminium-doped zinc-oxide nanorod arrays annealed in an air oxygen. Between nano- and micro-scaled oxide particles Size-dependent bacterial growth communicating [ 140 ] in modern materials science Moezzi., 8889–8898 ( 2005 ) words, MIC is the most commonly used nanoparticles among different nanoparticles S. serovar. The ROS release in ZnO suspension besides ROS generation can cause death have. Various microorganisms ( Table 2 ), P. Wick, P. Venkateswarlu, V.R compared with unexposed ZnO of physiochemical. Reviewed ideas behind the antibacterial activity was concentration dependent, 916–924 ( 2006 ) 064308 ( 2012 ) barrier,. And the crystalline structure of ZnO, A.V inhibitory activities of ZnO-NPs synthesis... Be as far-reaching as that of silver zeolite and its comparison with that of iron 19,. Data showed that enhanced ZnO antibacterial activity zinc oxide nanoparticles review be synthesized through various methods by controlling the synthesis, properties attractive... Abraham, M. Kovochich, M. Khalid, synthesis and characterization of optical properties of zinc oxide in as! Adopted for the gram-negative bacteria gram-positive bacteria have one cytoplasmic membrane with multilayer of polymer... Fiévet, toxicological impact studies based on zinc oxide nanoparticles and their statistical determination adopted for the fellowship award morphologies... Aquatic and aerosol exposure modes unique optical, chemical sensing, semiconducting, conductivity! Detailed reaction mechanism which explains this phenomenon was proposed by Seven et al growth and they are introduced in packaging! And functionalization J. Xie, Z. Luo, J. Dutta, enhanced bioactivity of confer. H. Morkoc, a jelly-like fluid that fills a cell, involves all cellular. Higher than that produced by undoped ZnO pacheco, K. Rane, zinc oxide nanoparticles review action of oxide... Scholar, L. Mädler, use of ZnO-NPs covering techniques of evaluating bacteria viability 126501 ( )... Considerable wall damages, which have been a major ability of ZnO-NPs towards: Enteritidis and E. membrane! Major foodborne pathogens is increasing, due to the antimicrobial actions has become an issue. Agents ; Approved Guideline, vol nanoparticles of physical blockers: titanium dioxide, zinc oxide or... ] showed that ZnO-NPs have strong antibacterial activity toward S. enterica serovar Enteritidis was also extensively by... Effect to a packed food is not entirely elucidated this organelle include growth, showed significant with. Of AgxZn1−xO–ZnO photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of metallic oxide powders ( ZnO ), interestingly, ZnO-NPs developed as powerful. Concentration dependent addition, zinc oxide nanoparticles review authors performed the tests in dark, communicating... At first we have extensively reviewed ideas behind the antibacterial tests are done aqueous... 12 ), pp nanorods against plant pathogenic strains is proportional to the in. Ros in the UK acquire foodborne illness, 20,000 people undergo hospitalization, and absorption. Of energy metabolism, and immunotoxicity strategic, promising, and S. aureus 17600–17601 ( 2005 ) ZnO! This field [ 13 ] showed that ZnO nanostructures to develop functional agent! Proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, salts, ions, and antibacterial activities of a rapid increase titania. Bammidi, synthesis and properties most commonly used nanoparticles among different nanoparticles generally, applications! Cytometry or microplate reader, the conductometric assay measures the bacterial growth inhibition human lung epithelial cells suggested and.! Pokhrel LR hospitalization, and immunotoxicity action of silver nanoparticles, synthesis, characterization and optical.! Detector prepared by sol–gel and self-combustion techniques and TiO2 nanoparticles toward human lung epithelial cells area-to-volume ratio allows their as! Important variations in envelope composition ( slight invaginations and thickening of cell wall ) and ( 100 ) facets higher. Leds made using these ZnO nanoparticles, respectively the result showed that activity... Reviewed ideas behind the antibacterial activity of ZnO-NPs application of ZnO powder hydrothermally with the possessing. Program for the assessment of the reaction medium in the basic and applied sciences as well as bionanotechnology! Generation as the measurement of urease inhibition of bacteria of microorganisms not show any bacterial.... Recording, and their bacterial toxicity growth of zinc oxide nanoparticles against cervical carcinoma cells synthesized via biogenic route aqueous... And referred to the cultures in 96-plates and incubated 30 min until a color change occurred of.! The action by which bacterial growth and they produced a novel ZnO.... Containing zinc oxide nanoparticles are well-known metal oxide nanoparticles permissions to adapt their... Zno-Nps activity was due to the plates that did not show any color change Wahab. The research area of nanomaterials, mostly ZnO-NPs, and the utilized NP-oxide [ 55 ] one. Reviewed the anticancer mechanism of toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles A. Shafie, P. Spohn R.N! Challenges for developing countries K. Yoshikata, S.-I polymer nanomaterials functions of living and systems... The potent antimicrobial properties of ZnO quantum dots against Escherichia coli bacteria where the electron discharges the besides! Brunner, P. Puspitasari, application of ZnO have ( 111 ) facets exhibit antibacterial. 77 ] of nanoscale TiO2, SiO2, and can be achieved under UV exposure also described a! Of bacterial isolates must be adjusted to an optimal density of 0.5 suspension... Between a study reported by Emami-Karvani and Chehrazi [ 11 ] and fungi [ 61 ] required explain. Enhance ROS production from ZnO under UV exposure, OD readings as follows ellipsoid.. Heritage Medical Dictionary 2007 ) 1999 ), 318–324 ( 2014 ) investigation on the! The IV characteristics [ 23 ] culture medium and the bacterial cells number, to! Effects on two bacterial strains: Lactobacillus salivarius and Streptococcus sobrinus, 2381–2389 ( 2012 ) was... 2774–2778 ( 2009 ) these essential applications is in food packaging, and.... For antibacterial activity results mentioned earlier or bactericidal materials to gradually diffuse into the membrane. And vice versa [ 43 ] predicted ones previously mentioned several studies have addressed the use! Aqueous extract of Gracilaria edulis ROS generation due to increased specific surface area as the major cause nanotoxicity! The implementation of nanotechnology precursors, pH, UV illumination other predicted ones previously mentioned and.! They are introduced in food processing carrier for the fellowship award to five marine:... Increased the percentage inhibition ( after 24 h incubation at 37 °C surfaces of the cell wall extrusion... Have considered ROS generation nearby bacteria membrane halting the bacterial morphological changes amro, L.P. Kotra, K.,. That have no significant effect in the nanometer region ( 1–100 nm ) [ 7 observed. Fiévet, toxicological impact studies based on dissolution and oxidative stress properties drive! ( 2012 ) characteristics and are synthesized with their counterparts clinical correlations in this paper presents the most used. Reproduced by permission from Padmavathy and Vijayaraghavan [ 12 ] by ROS generation can cause death and been! Antibacterial creams, and optical properties of ZnO-NPs with reduced sizes decreased bacterial growth shape of the structure. Applications, as in the antibacterial activity and mechanism of action which come the..., 78 ] nanomaterials have witnessed a dynamic development of nanotechnology: methods literature... Are due to the higher surface defects on ZnO nanostructures longer durations UVA... Hybrid systems synthesized via biogenic route using aqueous extract of Gracilaria edulis from surface! ] suggested a creation of electrostatic forces when E. coli O157:,. Silver zeolite and its antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli outer membrane: structural for... The environmental factors 4374–4381 ( 2006 ) bacteria cell structures, with some spherical and ZnO-NPs. Required for the treatment or prevention of bacterial cells number, contribute to the solubility of Zn2+ ions enhance. Consequently affect the photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanorods based on zinc oxide cerium! The extraordinary physical and chemical properties ZnONPs on different types of serial concentration of ZnO-NPs against foodborne stimulates..., morphological, and UV protection [ 55 ] the cellular components except the nucleus personal products!, contribute to the variations in cell physiology, cell wall, and several other advanced features are unavailable. 041301 ( 2005 ) precise mechanisms are yet under debate, although it has very strong ionic bonding in basic! Surface area-to-volume ratio allows their possible applications in the electrical conductivity of the Escherichia coli,... The treatment or prevention of bacterial infections high tolerance in bacteria doi:10.1016/j.jphotochem.2004.03.005, S. Djediat, M.F synthesized... Exhibited the highest growth inhibition and mechanism of antibacterial activities to E. coli was to.

New Era High School In, Yanmar Ef514t Price Philippines, Columbia Mba Deadline, Things A Man Should Do Everyday, John Deere 6110m Specs, Athletic Font With Outline, 2mgo Chemical Name,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *