Morphological data matrix of Alternanthera and outgroups (OG). The sister species to this unresolved clade is A. snodgrassii, which shares their shrubby habit. Orobanche aegyptiaca seeds were germinated at a range of water potentials and temperatures and the progress of germination within the seed population I.M.Johnst. Among these âJamesbondiaâ spp., A. geniculata has stipitate flowers [homoplasious character 4(1); Â Appendix 2], whereas A. olivacea has sessile flowers. 1). Both have long styles, small stigmas and ligulate, laciniate pseudostaminodia. We found that the nematode is spatially clustered, prevalent around field edges, and its dispersal pattern followed the direction of cultivation. The interacting effects of Î¨ and temperature affected the ability of the hydrothermal time model to predict germination performance across all temperature and Î¨ conditions. Field trials were performed during 2 years using the following rotation: S. tuberosum cv. Soil cores collected from the potato ridge and the furrows at various depths and distances from the host plants differed in the distribution of G. pallida-selective and G. rostochiensis-selective hatching activity within the soil profile. Photoperiodic and temperature effects were disaggregated using an empirically based model leaf appearance (LAP), which, by way of parametrization, helped quantify genotypic differences. The results of a pot experiment with the varieties 'Multa' and 'Libertas' suggest that attack by this nematode reduces plant weight in two ways: at medium to high densities there is a reduction of the rate of growth of the roots associated with necrosis of root tips caused by the penetration of second stage larvae and at lower densities because of the development of giant cells. Rice crop duration in tropical-arid, irrigated environments, such as the Sahel, varies strongly among seasons and years. Electrophysiological tests demonstrated that exposure to 1% DiTeraÂ® prevented sensory perception of potato root diffusate. Mears (1977) mentioned that Lamarck validly published the identity of the type species of Alternanthera in 1753. Results showed inter-racial differences in both T(b) and TR values. ; SÃ¡nchez-del Pino et al., 2009). or H. pallida Stone. Indonesia dan di luar negeri. Alternanthera Forssk. Though resistant cultivars to common species (M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica) are available, they are not effective against other major species of root-knot nematodes. The hatching of the juvenile cysts increased to 59% in 2.3 years and in 4.4 years; a 75% increase was observed. About 20 new taxa were rather recently described from Argentina, Paraguay and Brazil (Pedersen, 1997, 2000). litoralis), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis), are often sown in mixtures for turfgrass. However, the identity of A. halimifolia is not entirely clear and treatments vary from treating it as an endemic from the Lomas of Peru (Borsch, 1993) to a widespread species in many parts of the Neotropics. At present, various countries have banned the nematicides after analyzing their consequence on environment and humans thereby making it an imperative to find an alternative method for the inhibition of nematodes against S. lycopersicum. This clade is weakly supported in both plastid (Fig. Apart from A. macbridei Standl., this highly supported (99% JK, 1.0 PP; Fig. The median thermal time to germination varied with water potential. Overall, these results suggest that S. sisymbriifolium has potential to significantly reduce G. pallida populations, and also that the cropping system (i.e. Although all of these areas are close to the Caribbean islands they were not connected to the continents when Caribbean floras and faunas were being established (Carlquist, 1974). Kentucky bluegrass had higher base water potential (Î¨b) and required a longer hydrotime for germination than the other species. Our results corroborate the hatch-inducing effect of S. sisymbriifolium, underline the importance of growth duration and root length density as determinants of the reduction in PCN population that can be achieved and draw attention to the pitfall in methodology that can arise in the study of hatch stimulation. All resistant plants were invaded by second stage juveniles. Hotspots (Borsch et al., 2003) or regions with uncertain primary homology were excluded in phylogenetic analyses (the number of regions and total number of positions excluded in the analyses are indicated below and in Table 3). Analysis of the yield loss showed that nematodes mainly reduced cumulative interception of light while compaction mainly reduced the efficiency with which intercepted light was used to produce biomass. Viable cysts detected from Peru guano which had been imported from Peru to Japan in 1969 were identified as the potato cyst nematode, Heterodera rostochiensis wollenweber, 1923, as the result of the morphological study and an inoculation test. Base water potentials (at which the rate of progress towards germination is zero) varied between individual Inflorescence units of Alternanthera are flowers crowded along the rachis in globose spikes (dense) whereas other taxa have few flowers arranged along the rachis forming slender spikes (loose). and A. pungens. The root exudates may act as stimulants or inhibitors of second-stage juveniles (J2) hatching. However, A. laguroides differs in having a more globose spicate inflorescence and a distribution restricted to Central America. The major source for isotope and, with some limitations, anatomical data was Sage et al. Because A. nesiotes is resolved in a subclade consisting of species that are distributed throughout the Americas (Clade B3; Fig. The eradication program for the potato cyst nematode (PCN), Globodera pallida, in the Northwest of the United States revolves around the use of soil fumigation. Despite the considerable variation of Alternanthera spp. The character is coded as not applicable in Pedersenia hassleriana, A. littoralis var. Alternanthera is one of those but was only represented by a few species in phylogenetic reconstructions (Sage et al., 2007). This may reflect the different coevolutionary histories of nematodes and their Solanum hosts in South America. Species of Alternanthera have a capitate stigma which never has two evident deeply lobes as in the outgroup taxa. DÃ©sirÃ©e followed by S. sisymbriifolium. Personal narrative of travels to the equinoctial regions of the New Continent, during the years 1799-1804. Thirteen indigenous Alternanthera spp. 1). (2007) who examined a large number of Alternanthera spp. maritima is a prostrate perennial with succulent, ovoid leaves and regularly apically fimbriate pseudostaminodia (Mears, 1977) and occurs along the Atlantic coast of Africa and Tropical America (Pedersen, 1990). 2014). The eastern part of the PNW, encompassing the middle portions of Washington and Oregon and southern portion Idaho is part of the North American Desert region. The region closest to the Pacific Ocean in the PNW is defined as the Marine West Coast Forest. I. Acomparison of chickpea, lentil, soybean and cowpea at constant temperatures, Resistance of eggplant, its wild relatives and their hybrids to different strains of Pseudomonas solanacearum, Rice crop duration and leaf appearance rate in a variable thermal environment. The use of potato cultivars resistant to PCN has been used as a control strategy, thereby alleviating the need for chemical nematicides (Kaplan and Keen 1980;Roberts 1992;Williamson and Hussey 1996), but this measure cannot, so far, be considered permanent due to the existence of populations capable of overcoming the resistance that has been found (Roberts 1992;Timmermans 2005). The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed with 25-ÂµL reactions containing 1 Ã Taq buffer with 1.5 mm MgCl2, 1 mm dNTP mix (2.5 mm each), 0.4 Âµm of each primer, 1 U Taq DNA polymerase (Qiagen) and 1 ÂµL of DNA template. Flower arrangement along rachis. Solanum sisymbriifolium is a trap crop for potato cyst nematodes (PCN). Forb Plant Description Origin: Introduced Life Cycle: Perennial Similar Species: Alternanthera sp. maritima (C3) in this clade may be explained by hybrid speciation rather than a reversal from C4 to C3. Alternanthera has long been of interest to physiologists because of the occurrence of C3âC4intermediate and C4 species (Devi, Rajagopalan & Raghavendra, 1995; Chinthapalli et al., 2000; Gowik et al., 2006; Sage et al., 2007). For rice double-cropping systems, cultivars are needed that have a stable duration under variable daylengths and temperatures. Linear, Q10, expolinear and quadratic models were fitted to the data on rate of emergence against temperature. into English by Helen Maria Williams. For the species that failed this protocol, variations in the annealing temperature (48–58°C) were followed. When sterile PRL (from aseptically cultured microplants) and non-sterile PRL (from aseptically cultured microplants grown in the presence of tuber washings) samples were collected and assayed for hatching activity, the in vitro hatch of both PCN species but particularly of G. pallida was greater in non-sterile PRL. Low divergence was found in the 5.8S gene with only nine potentially parsimony-informative characters (representing 55.2% of the variable sites). Eco-regions are defined as areas where the type, quality and quantity of environmental resources are generally similar. The islands of the West Indies extend 200 km south of North America (Florida), east of Central America and South America to Venezuela (Fritsch & McDowell, 2003). Solanum ferox and Solanum toxicarium were found to be immune to four and five strains, respectively. However, in general molecular data do lend some support to Martius's classification. Both high nematode density and soil compaction caused severe yield losses, of all cultivars except cv. Alternanthera laguroides from Central America is sister to the Caribbean species. J.T.Howell, A. tenella and A. vestita (Andersson) J.T.Howell; Figs 1, 2). Again, however, an assumption of the hydrothermal occurs along the east coasts of tropical America and three varieties in the west coast of tropical Africa (Pedersen, 1990). Although conditions of culture and storage of the nematodes, production of the diffusate and methods of hatching were standardised, there were differences in the proportion of viable eggs that hatched. The AMF used were Vaminoc (mixed-AMF inoculum), Glomus intraradices (BioRize BB-E) and G. mosseae (isolate BEG 12). Clade B (Node 1 in Figs 1, 2). modified thermal time model which accounted for 78% of the variation in the data. Rate of rhizome bud break was higher than for seed germination at temperatures of 32 C or below, but lower at higher temperatures. of Tm(G) were much more vanable: the 80% population range was 48 .0Â°C to 60.8Â°C for chickpea, 31.8Â°C to 34.4Â°C for lentil and 46.8Â°C Two intermediate C3âC4 species, A. crucis and A. tenella, are found in Clade B4. Kind of tepal trichomes form on tepals. Microbiologists have attempted to apply a modified version of this law to bacterial growth by replacing the reaction rate constant by the growth rate constant, but the modified law relationship fits data poorly, as graphs of the logarithm of the growth rate constant against reciprocal absolute temperature result in curves rather than straight lines. Personal observations of herbarium material suggested that this group of species share the presence of long-cylindrical inflorescences, which are different from globose inflorescences (that characterize all the other Alternanthera spp.) The species forming Clade A are predominantly distributed in South America with several extending to Central America [A. brasiliana (L.) Kuntze, A. pubiflora Kuntze] and Florida (A. flavescens Kunth; Figs 1, 2). Hatching activity in the soil increased rapidly after plant emergence and peaked between 2 and 5 weeks after emergence; thereafter, at about the onset of flowering, hatching factor activity decreased markedly. podantha of the Bromeliaceae and Aloe barbadense of the Asphodelaceae. It has three long pedunculate heads originating from a single axis, whereas all other species in the clade have more or less branched thyrsoid synflorescences. Possible reasons for the distribution of the two species being dependent on latitude are discussed, particularly the influence of daylength. The literature data on the study of structural and functional organization of genes for resistance to potato cyst nematodes are given. Our data establish its monophyly and identify several major lineages in the genus, but future work should focus on increased taxon sampling. Clade A (Node 6 in Figs 1, 2). Predominant localization of mitochondria enriched with glycine-decarboxylating enzymes in bundle sheath cells of, Identity and taxonomic affinity of some members of the Amaranthaceae from the GalÃ¡pagos Islands, Botanical Institute, GÃ¶teborg University, Floral morphology and taxonomic relations among the genera of Amaranthaceae in the New World and the Hawaiian Islands, Species of Amaranthaceae in the GalÃ¡pagos Islands and their affinities to species on the South American mainland, Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, The evolutionary patterns of the plant family Amaranthaceae on the GalÃ¡pagos and Hawaiian Islands, Genera plantarum secundum ordines naturales disposita, Flore illustrÃ©e des phanÃ©rogames de Guadalupe et de Martinique, Biogeography and phylogeny of Caribbean plants â introduction, Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98NT, Monte Carlo sampling methods using Markov chains and their applications, The Amaranthaceae of the GalÃ¡pagos Islands, Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. After 4 and 6 weeks, both isolates had induced significantly greater percentage hatch compared to controls. yang beredar di petani. Name probably misspelled by the author for Telanthera. The main hatching factor, HF E, was found in extremely low concentrations in the leachate (less than 2.9 Ã 10Â5% of recovered organic material) and was active in vitro at less than 2.1 Ã 10Â8 M. Separation of the different hatching factors during purification was found to decrease the percentage hatch achieved in vitro at optimum concentration. A significant association was demonstrated between late blight infection in the foliage and tuber blight incidence under field conditions. 0 = psilate, 1 = ornamented. The total length of the ITS sequence (ITS1+5.8S+ITS2) is 645 bp (Table 2). pers. A nonlinear poikilotherm rate equation was used to describe development rate as a function of temperature, and a temperature-independent Weibull function was used to distribute development times for the population. In this study, we quantified the effect of different periods of growth of S. sisymbriifolium and root length density on hatching of Globodera pallida, using potato and fallow treatments as references. In addition, quantitative congruence among data sets was tested with the ILD test. supports the plant. All C3âC4 intermediates belong to a different clade that also contains C3 species, but species limits, including the widely studied A. tenella, are unclear. pertumbuhan tanaman kentang, danupayapengendalian NSK di S. sisymbriifolium is recognized as a trap crop for both G. pallida and G. rostochiensis (Dias et al. Unfortunately, our samples of A. tenella were not included in any physiological study, so their precise photosynthetic pathway is not known. In this study, the field efficacy of crop rotations and soil amendments was assessed in microplots for their potential to reduce populations of G. rostochiensis in the quarantine area. Populations of Globodera species from the Americas and potato cyst-nematodes G. pallida pathotype Pa2 and G. rostochiensis pathotype Rol from Europe were compared by their relative abilities to invade and develop in roots of eight wild Latin American Solanum sg. Alternanthera laguroides is sister to these three species and shares with them the presence of a long styled pistil and globose, long papillate glandulose stigmas. 2), it must be a separate distinct introduction to the archipelago. Other sister species (99% JK, 1.0 PP) in the subclade, A. chacoÃ«nsis and A. paronychioides, have been variously treated by authors in the past. 2012;Scholte and Vos 2000; Building a virtual greenhouse with lamps, thereby simulating light microclimate and improving modelling of photosynthesis. (2007) provided Î´13C carbon isotope values for a large number of Alternanthera spp., they included only three out of at least 17 C4 species in their reconstruction of the evolution of photosynthetic pathways in Amaranthaceae. Topography and Geomorphology The Newey has red earth clay soils typical of the area. This suggests that Alternanthera is another classic case of derived secondary woodiness associated with insular species (Carlquist, 1962, 1974, 2010a, b). Analysis of variance revealed differential cultivar-by-isolate interactions for both foliar and tuber blight resistance. Mears (1977) later explained that for many years it was thought that Alternanthera ForsskÃ¥l was based on Achyranthes repens L. Then, Standley (1915) considered Achyranthes repens to be the type species of Achyranthes and he placed most of the species of Alternanthera in Achyranthes while transferring the species of Achyranthes to Centrostachys Wallich (Bullock, 1957; Melville, 1958; Mears, 1977; Robertson, 2003). Characters and coding are detailed in Â Appendix 2. â?â represents missing data. However, few species within Alternanthera have crenate pseudostaminodia and shorter than the common form in the genus as occurs in A. altacruzensis, A. caracasana, A. chacoÃ«nsis, A. obovata, A. paronychioides, A. pungens, Pedersenia, Tidestromia lanuginosa and T. carnosa. A manifold of these units was assembled to increase operator efficiency. 12set) e d o n a ic r e m a it no a L lo ta I o s s e gr XX n o C RESUMOS Realização: COMISSÃO CIENTÍFICA DO CONGRESSO Coordenação: Dr. Ely Eduardo Saranz Camargo Realização: Responsável: Dr. Jaldo de Souza Santos Presidente do CFF SEÇÃO 1 ETNOMEDICINA E ANTROPOLOGIA APRESENTAÇÃO ORAL: Segunda-feira, 19 de setembro, das 16h00-18h00 … was shown to be nearly as effective as potato at inducing egg hatching, but is resistant to subsequent nematode development and reproduction (Scholte, 2000). The name A. ficoidea has indeed been the source of profound confusion (often with A. tenella) but could clearly be shown to be a synonym of A. paronychioides (Mears, 1977; Eliasson, 1987; Borsch, 2001), a distantly related C4 species. ResultsSolanum sisymbriifolium root exudates promoted hatching of second-stage juveniles (J2). This region has precipitation evenly dispersed throughout the year and has a narrow temperature range with cool summers (temperatures below 22 Â°C) and mild winters (temperatures above 0 Â°C). Further elucidation of the host range of Globodera ellingtonae. Contrary to The carbon isotope ratios of the three previously identified C3âC4 intermediate taxa were in the same range as the C3 species. No significant correlation was found between tuber blight incidence under field conditions and the tuber blight rating in the National List. Alternative, integrated strategies are needed to continue to battle this invasive nematode. This species is a low-growing shrub endemic to the GalÃ¡pagos with semi-succulent, glaucous leaves (Eliasson, 1990). Parsimony analysis of the nuclear ITS data resulted in three MPTs of 788 steps in length (CI = 0.55, RI = 0.80). Standl., A. olivacea Urb. The apparent N recovery increased by circa 20-25% (absolute). Results suggest that T(b) in most maize races differs from that for inbred genetic materials (from US Corn Belt or Mexico), typically 10Â°C. The Amaranthus L. genus contains about 70 species, three of which are cultivated for grain (A. caudatus L.,A. Ten field experiments were conducted representing diverse environmental conditions. 3) of the ITS dataset indicates some topological inconsistency in weakly supported parts of the tree. Please view the pdf by using the Full Text (PDF) link under 'View' to the left. Extract from Wikipedia article: Alternanthera pungens Kunth is a creeping, prostrate perennial pioneer plant of the Amaranthaceae family, spreading by seed and vegetatively, with roots often developing at the nodes of spreading stems. The effect of amplitude is also greater when more time is spent at the wanner temperature in the diurnal cycle. Barbed trichomes are present in A. caracasana, A. pungens and T. valdesiana. The present study characterizes differences in the photothermal response of 18 rice lines for three major phases of their development, namely, germination, the appearance of early leaves, and the induction phase (IP) between the end of the basic vegetative phase (BVP) and panicle initiation (PI). A. caracasana Kunth, A. paronychioides A.St-Hil., A pungens Kunth and A. sessilis (L.) DC. The effects of mycorrhization on PCN hatch were broadly similar across the six potato cultivars. ... Solanum sisymbriifolium L. was introduced in The Netherlands as a trap crop for potato cyst nematodes (PCN) following research that identified the species as the most promising candidate among a diversity of tested potential trap crops ( Scholte, 2000a, b, c;Scholte and Vos, 2000). In conclusion, screening for temperature-insensitive leaf appearance rates may be promising for rice breeding for arid, irrigated environments. Buku ini diakhiri dengan saran untuk Of these, 111 are point mutations (41.8% of the proportion of the variable sites) and 44 are indels (100%), whereas the rpl16 exon contained only 12 bp that were potentially parsimony-informative characters (54.5% of the proportion of the variable sites). Alternanthera serpyllifolia, A. olivacea and A. geniculata occur in the Caribbean islands (Standley, 1917), and only A. olivacea has been collected outside the islands in Brazil, Venezuela, Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Panama (Burger, 1983). However, species of âJamesbondiaâ are nested within Alternanthera based on the trees obtained from using plastid (trnL-F, rpl16), nuclear (ITS) and morphology data and perhaps will be a useful subgeneric lineage. 1). The trap crop Solanum sisymbriifolium was a non-host for the nematode. of grain legume crops to different environments, and for the screening of germplasm, are discussed. In all combinations fourth stage juveniles were mostly males. The modes of action and the control potential of this biological nematicide are discussed. maritima, A. obovata and A. philoxeroides. Dieser Ruckgang war positiv korreliert mit der Bodentemperatur im Feld. Except for A. tenella and A. crucis, which have a herbaceous habit, the species in Clade B4 are shrubby. Holub, Pedersenia cf. In the plastid DNA tree it diverges second after A. microphylla in clade B3 (Fig. This study was supported by the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y TecnologÃa (CONACYT) as part of the PhD scholarship for I.S.P. This endogenous antioxidant activity is required to explain the spatial sensing in the establishment of the hostâparasite interface and its characterization provides insight into how chemical potential may be regulated within and around plant tissues. To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors. Oospore germination from two Scandinavian (A1 and A2) P. infestans isolates was stimulated in visible light and in 1 : 2 and 1 : 10 soil extract. Alternanthera caracasana and A. pungens (92% JK) grouped together in this study based on one homoplasious character: midrib of bracteoles not prominent [character 3(0), Â Appendix 2]. You can request the full-text of this article directly from the authors on ResearchGate. Excluding the 5â²trnL exon and hotspots, the aligned matrix length of the trnL-F sequence included a total of 1084 bp positions.